Cognitive distraction represents a significant departure from the distractions discussed in Chapter 2 in that it involves the counter-attitudinal persuasion paradigm. Although experimenters involved in both counter-attitudinal and distraction research have inferred some relationship between these areas of interest, this relationship has not been specified. Festinger and Maccoby's effort hypothesis, which was discussed in Chapter 2, used cognitive dissonance as a secondary explanation for observed distraction. Baron , in an attempt to bolster this same effort hypothesis, uses an example from dissonance re search Zimbardo, , The effort hypothesis states that distraction can cause dissonance because the expenditure of energy to hear a persuasive message might require justification. As noted, however, this expenditure, being private, would involve neither public nor private commitment to the message. Under such circumstances, it could hardly be expected that a great deal of dissonance would be aroused.
The Role Of Forewarning And Inoculation Psychology Essay
Self-consistency for low self-esteem in dissonance processes: the role of self-standards
People often avoid information and situations that have the potential to contradict previously held beliefs and attitudes i. According to the motivated social cognition model of political ideology, conservatives tend to have stronger epistemic needs to attain certainty and closure than liberals. This implies that there may be differences in how liberals and conservatives respond to dissonance-arousing situations. In two experiments, we investigated the possibility that conservatives would be more strongly motivated to avoid dissonance-arousing tasks than liberals.
When stating the attitude, their beliefs will
In the case of the fox, he wanted the grapes when he thought he could get them. When we experience cognitive dissonance, we will do one of two things to make ourselves feel better: we will justify our actions or we will change our beliefs. Post-Decision Dissonance Have you ever made a major purchase and then wondered if you made the right decision? Post-decision dissonance occurs when we experience dissonance after a major decision, such as a big purchase. One famous study on post-decision dissonance was conducted by Jack Brehm in
The self-consistency revision of cognitive dissonance theory predicts that people with low self-esteem are less likely to experience dissonance arousal compared to people with high self-esteem. Two experiments investigated how the accessibility of different self-standards in the context of a dissonant act activates the consistency role of self-esteem in the process of cognitive dissonance arousal. In Experiment I, after participants wrote a counter-attitudinal essay, priming personal self-standards caused more attitude change for those with high compared to low self-esteem, whereas priming no standards or priming normative self-standards caused the same level of attitude change among both self-esteem groups. Experiment 2 showed that the self-consistency effect for low self-esteem participants only occurred among those who were high in self-certainty when personal self-standards were primed.