Objectives: It is important to capture all health effects of interventions in cost-utility analyses conducted under a societal or healthcare perspective. However, this is rarely done. Household spillovers health effects on patients' other household members may be particularly likely in the context of technologies and interventions to change behaviors that are interdependent in the household. Our objective was to prospectively collect outcome data from household members and illustrate how these can be included in a cost-utility analysis of a behavior change intervention in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD.
Cost-utility analysis is a method which is most often used when benefits cannot be expressed in monetary profit or metric values days of sick leave. The utilities in cost-utility analyses are in fact preferences of each person, a selected group, or the whole population. Since quality of life is one of the preferences, estimation of quality of life is frequently used in health economics. The results of cost-utility analyses are expressed in QALY — quality adjusted life years. QALY indicates the average number of years of quality life which a person with a defined health status will be able to live in a case that a certain intervention is carried out. This indicator therefore shows the cost of intervention with regard to a specific outcome, life in quality.
EAM system blueprint design and global deployment increases maintenance maturity. Chemical plant realizes maintenance maturity growth with Asset Improvement Program. Embedding Global Maintenance Excellence Blueprint ensures time savings of 75 percent.
Studies of costs and related economic implications comprise a major group of methods used in HTA. These studies can involve attributes of either or both of primary data collection and integrative methods. Cost data from one or more such sources often are combined with data from primary clinical studies, epidemiological studies, and other sources to conduct cost-effectiveness analyses and other analyses that involve weighing health and economic impacts of health technology.
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