A toll road, also known as a turnpike or toll way, is a public or private roadway for which a fee is assessed for passage. It is a form of road pricing typically implemented to help recuperate the cost of road construction and maintenance, which on public roads amounts to a form of taxation. Toll roads in some form have existed since antiquity, collecting their fees from passing travelers on foot, wagon or horseback; but their prominence increased with the rise of the automobile, and modern toll ways collect their fees from motor vehicles exclusively. The amount of the toll usually varies by vehicle type, weight, or C number of axles, with freight trucks often charged higher rates than cars.
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Comparison of toll and annuity PPPs: a case study of highway projects in India
Casestudy Toll Plaza | Toll Road | Road Infrastructure
Unmanned aerial vehicles, or UAVs, flown for medical resupply missions by the military can bring meaningful benefits to a blood supply network that is large and complex. The authors assess the utility and design of autonomous UAVs — specifically, small fixed-wing aircraft — and search for an optimal fleet design by examining payloads and cost models for two missions: logistical resupply and emergency delivery of blood. Gilmore , Michael Chaykowsky , Brent Thomas. Use Adobe Acrobat Reader version 10 or higher for the best experience.
Case Study: A Transportation & Logistics Company
Infrastructure projects such as toll roads, bridges, subway systems, ferries and tunnels can generate revenues from traffic in a user-pay system, fixed availability payments or some combination. These projects can be public-private partnerships with various sorts of funding, guarantees and other items from the government. As traffic has a ramp-up period and generally grows with the economy thereafter and toll rates can increase with inflation, the cash flow pattern can have a pattern with high growth rates.
The use of public—private partnership PPP approaches for developing infrastructure has been well recognized. The allocation of risk between public authority and private sector differs among the different types of PPP projects. The objective of the paper is to analyze the factors that influence the type of PPP and the performance of different types of PPP contracts. A unique data set of national highway PPP projects from India, comprising toll and 48 annuity projects formed the basis of the study. There are significant differences between toll and annuity PPP projects.