According to consensus in modern genetics anatomically modern humans first arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa between 73, and 55, years ago. Settled life, which involves the transition from foraging to farming and pastoralism, began in South Asia around 7, BCE. At the site of Mehrgarh , Balochistan , Pakistan , presence can be documented of the domestication of wheat and barley, rapidly followed by that of goats, sheep, and cattle. This civilisation flourished between 2, BCE and BCE in what today is Pakistan and north-western India, and was noted for its urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage, and water supply. In early second millennium BCE persistent drought caused the population of the Indus Valley to scatter from large urban centres to villages.
Kashmir under lockdown: All the latest updates
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Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan to the east and south; Iran to the west; Turkmenistan , Uzbekistan , and Tajikistan to the north; and China to the northeast. Occupying , square kilometers , sq mi , it is a mountainous country with plains in the north and southwest. Kabul is the capital and largest city. Its population is around 32 million, composed mostly of ethnic Pashtuns , Tajiks , Hazaras , and Uzbeks. Humans lived in what is now Afghanistan at least 50, years ago. Alexander the Great invaded the region in the 4th century BCE, who married Roxana in Bactria before his Kabul Valley campaign , where he faced resistance from Aspasioi and Assakan tribes. The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom became the eastern end of the Hellenistic world.
History Of Kashmir Issue In Urdu
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Education in Pakistan is overseen by the Federal Ministry of Education and the provincial governments , whereas the federal government mostly assists in curriculum development, accreditation and in the financing of research and development. Article A of Constitution of Pakistan obligates the state to provide free and compulsory quality education to children of the age group 5 to 16 years. The education system in Pakistan  is generally divided into six levels: preschool for the age from 3 to 5 years , primary grades one through five , middle grades six through eight , high grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate or SSC , intermediate grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary School Certificate or HSSC , and university programs leading to undergraduate and graduate degrees. In tribal areas female literacy is 9. On top of that, Pakistan produces about , university graduates and 10, computer science graduates per year.