Concerning disease, research papers report that the medical field believes that disease is the result of physical changes within the body. This philosophy of science has led to a narrow focus upon pathogens that create illness. Modern medicine looks to biochemical factors, levels of immunology, nutrition, and environmental toxins as causing disease. To eradicate disease or illness, then these elements thought to cause the difficulties must some how be changed. There are several implications of this treatment of disease.
Cancer Research UK
October 10, , by NCI Staff. New study results show that for women with early-stage breast cancer, having only a sentinel lymph node biopsy after lumpectomy, rather than a more aggressive biopsy procedure, did not decrease survival. Long-term results from a large clinical trial confirm that, for some women with early-stage breast cancer who have lumpectomy as their surgical treatment, a less extensive lymph node biopsy approach is sufficient. The trial showed that women with early-stage breast cancer who have cancer cells in one or two sentinel lymph nodes can skip axillary lymph node dissection ALND after breast-conserving surgery without affecting their long-term survival. The findings are important for patients because ALND can cause chronic side effects such as numbness, decreased range of motion in the upper body, and lymphedema , said Armando Giuliano, M. The axillary lymph nodes run from the breast tissue into the armpit. Early theories of breast-cancer metastasis held that cancer cells that had broken free from the main tumor would first travel through these lymph nodes on their way to other organs.
Cancer Research Paper Topics
Breast augmentation and augmentation mammoplasty colloquially : " boob job " is a cosmetic surgery technique using breast-implants and fat-graft mammoplasty techniques to increase the size, change the shape, and alter the texture of the breasts of a woman. Augmentation mammoplasty is applied to correct congenital defects of the breasts and the chest wall. The surgical implantation approach creates a spherical augmentation of the breast hemisphere, using a breast implant filled with either saline solution or silicone gel ; the fat-graft transfer approach augments the size and corrects contour defects of the breast hemisphere with grafts of the adipocyte fat tissue , drawn from the person's body.
Have questions? Wikipedia provides a good introduction to breast cancer. Advice from the National Cancer Institute. Basic information to keep in mind: a normal individual carries two copies of all genes located on chromosomes 1 - 22 the autosomes.